Broccoli Sprout Research
Broccoli Sprout RESEARCH
Natural Biology is pleased to provide BroccoPhane® Standardized Broccoli Sprout as one of the key vitality factors found in 4GRAMS, 7 BASICS, & OxyAGE. In light of recent research revealing the antioxidant properties of broccoli sprouts. Sulforaphane, the active compound found in cruciferous vegetables, may help prevent various types of cancer. Clinical studies suggest that sulforaphane increases the activity of Phase II enzymes that inactivate carcinogens. These studies also showed that one of the most concentrated sources of sulforaphane is broccoli sprouts. BroccoPhane® is completely natural and standardized to contain a minimum 4000 ppm of sulforaphane.
Grown and processed in the USA
Since age is believed to be such an important risk factor, the attention turns to preventive measures against cancer. Besides avoiding UV rays in sunlight, environmental conditions prone to cancer risk, and refraining from tobacco use and smoking, the American Cancer Society recommends certain dietary guidelines8, including the National Cancer Institute’s “Five A Day for Better Health” program.9 The goal of this education program is to raise the average consumption of fruits and vegetables to 5 servings/day through increasing public awareness.
For over two decades, researchers have been stressing the importance of eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.10 Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest that specific phytochemicals found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, kale, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and cabbage, may protect against cancer by affecting carcinogen metabolism.10 Research done by Paul Talalay and his associates at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland revealed that broccoli sprouts, harvested after three days of growth, contained the highest concentration of sulforaphane, which is the phytochemical responsible for chemoprotection.11
METHOD OF ACTION
Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate that induces phase II detoxification enzymes.11-13 In the whole plant, isothiocyanates are in their precursor form, called glucosinolates. Sulforaphane is released when glucorophanin, the precursor of sulforaphane, is hydrolyzed by myrosinase, an enzyme that coexists with glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables.12 Maceration of plant material through chewing increases sulforaphane content because this exposes the glucosinolates to myrosinase.13
In the body, procarcinogens of exogenous origin are metabolically activated by phase I enzymes (Cytochrome P450). These enzymes convert usually harmless procarcinogens into carcinogens that can damage cell DNA.10 Cells are protected against damage by phase II enzymes such as quinone reductase and glutathione transferase. Phase II enzymes inactivate carcinogenic agents and promote their excretion.10 Evidence that sulforaphane is indeed responsible for indirectly preventing cell damage is shown in both in vivo and in vitro research. Furthermore, scientists know that sulforaphane is metabolized in the body because urinary dithiocarbamate, the metabolite of sulforaphane, increases sharply upon consumption of broccoli sprouts.12
In vitro studies:Human prostate cancer cells were treated with sulphoraphane or an aqueous broccoli sprouts extract and incubated for 20 hours to determine enzyme activity and glutathione levels. Results indicate that sulphoraphane is a potent phase II enzyme inducing agent, and that broccoli sprouts is a rich source of sulphoraphane.13
Human adult retinal pigment epithelial cells human skin keratinocytes and mouse leukemia cells were treated with a sulforaphane solution. Results showed prolonged protection against toxicity of oxidant stressors for at least three days after treatment with sulforaphane was removed.4
In vivo studies:Healthy volunteers were selected for studies conducted in inpatient and outpatient clinics at the General Clinical Research Center in Johns Hopkins Hospital. All studies were done using a preparation made with three-day old broccoli sprouts. In inpatient studies, subjects refrained from eating or drinking anything besides a diet provided by the Research Nutrition Service that was free of glucosinolates or isothiocyanates. Urine was collected in 8 hr intervals throughout the entire study. In outpatient studies, the format was similar, except volunteers kept a food diary and were asked to refrain from foods containing glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. In a crossover study, dithiocarbamate excretion in the urine increased after administration of broccoli sprout glucosinolates or isothiocyanates.12
A study done on mice in Japan showed that sulforaphane induced gene expression of phase II enzymes in hepatic cells at the transcriptional level. Level of phase II enzyme activity was dose-dependent.14
Sulforaphane is safe and efficacious. No research found for safety issues. Sulforaphane is a natural phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables and is extremely high in Broccoli Sprouts.
Natural Biology's French Red Wine Resveratrol from Full Spectrum Grape Extract is part of 4GRAMS of HAPPY and works synergistically with Broccophane®
None found for sulforaphane. Pregnant women and individuals taking prescription drugs or those who will be undergoing surgery should consult a physician prior to taking sulforaphane and other dietary supplements.
No information on toxicity was found. No evidence of side effects was reported in any study.
WARNING: 4GRAMS or Broccophane cannot recommend these product(s) for treatment, protection or cure against any disease. We highly recommend if you have any disease or health concerns to connect with your physician for medical advice. This product has not been evaluated by the FDA.
SEE RESVERATROL RESEARCH for another key ingredient in 4GRAMS OF HAPPY.
1. Zhang Y, et al. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1992:89:2399-2408.
2. Zhang Y, et al. Anticarcinogenic activities of sulforaphane and structurally related synthetic norbornyl isothiocyanates. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1994:91:3147-50.
Fahey JW, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic- resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2002:99(11):7610-7615.
Gao X, et al. Powerful and prolonged protection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and mouse leukemia cells against oxidative damage: the indirect antioxidant effects of sulforaphane. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2001:98(26):15221-15226.
Nestle M. Broccoli sprouts as inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme systems: clinical, dietary, and policy implications. 1997:94:11149-11151.
National Cancer Institute, www.nci.nih.gov.
National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results. Table I-1: Estimated new cancer cases and deaths for 2003. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2000.
American Cancer Society, www.cancer.org.
National Cancer Institute, www.5aday.gov.
Talalay P, Fahey JW. Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. American Institute for Cancer Research 11th Annual Research Conference on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, 2001 American Society for Nutritional Sciences: 3027S-3033S.
Fahey JW, et al. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1997:94:10367-10372.
Shapiro S, et al. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2001:10:501-508.
Brooks JD, et al. Potent induction of phase II enzymes in human prostate cells by sulforaphane. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarker and Prevention 2001:10:949-954.
Morimitsu Y, et al. A sulforaphane analogue that potently activates the Nrf2- dependent detoxification pathway. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2002:277(5):3456-3463.